In the main, people were whipped up by demonisation of the other, encouraged by the rhetoric of politicians and a feverish media.
It was announced at a press conference by Mountbatten on 3 Junewhen the date of independence — 15 August — was also announced. The Government of India Act was adapted to provide a legal framework for the new dominions.
The population of undivided India in was about million. The League rejected the Cripps offer, seeing this clause as insufficient in meeting the principle of Pakistan.
His ailing wife and five children navigated their journey from Radiala to Amritsar on their own. The prospect of losing this protection as independence drew closer worried more and more Muslims, first in parts of northern India, and then, after World War II, in the influential Muslim-majority provinces of Bengal and Punjab.
The period from to was a time of turmoil and saw the rise of the Indian National Movement in full strength. One interpretation argued for sovereign autonomy, including the right to secede, for Muslim-majority areas of the Indian subcontinent, but without any transfer of populations i.
Communities, families and farms were cut in two, but by delaying the announcement the British managed to avoid responsibility for the worst fighting and the mass migration that had followed. Even after the formation of Pakistan, debates on whether Muslims and Hindus are distinct nationalities or not continued in that country as well.
The conflict has wasted thousands of lives and millions of dollars, but is closer to a solution now than at any time since independence. The following day, 15 AugustIndia, now a smaller Union of India, became an independent country with official ceremonies taking place in New Delhi, and with Jawaharlal Nehru assuming the office of prime ministerand the viceroy, Louis Mountbatten, staying on as its first Governor General ; Gandhi, however, remained in Bengal, preferring instead to work with the new refugees from the partitioned subcontinent.
After partition, there were million people in India, 30 million in West Pakistan, and 30 million people in East Pakistan now Bangladesh. The predominantly Hindu and Sikh areas were assigned to the new India and predominantly Muslim areas to the new nation of Pakistan; the plan included a partition of the Muslim-majority provinces of Punjab and Bengal.
The first is the concept of a single Indian nationof which Hindus and Muslims are two intertwined communities. At the same time, the infrastructure of the Congress Party, whose entire leadership was imprisoned due to their opposition to the war, had been dismantled.
Propaganda had built up during the preceding war years, especially while Gandhi and the Indian National Congress leaders were shut in prison in the s; Jinnah saw the second world war as a blessing in disguise for this very reason.
The Punjab—the region of the five rivers east of Indus: With such notable exceptions, however, India has maintained a remarkable level of cohesion since independence, especially if one considers that it is a country nearly the size of Europe. The separate independence of Bengal was ruled out.
They had been drawn up by a Boundary Commission, led by British lawyer Cyril Radcliffewho later admitted that he had relied on out-of-date maps and census materials. He retired in January and returned to his family. What can explain this intensely violent reaction? At the time, few people understood what Partition would entail or what its results would be, and the migration on the enormous scale that followed took the vast majority of contemporaries by surprise.
The family migrated to West Bengal, India in Jump to navigation Jump to search This page is about the break up of British India. Other people came from China as they took advantage of the open border.
But it should be distinctly understood that this is not a united India. Under the circumstances I would prefer a de jure Pakistan, which may make the League more responsible. The new borders, which split the key provinces of the Punjab and Bengal in two, were officially approved on August India, 70 years on from independence: Rarely, oral histories tell of culpability and betrayal; more often, guilt and silences stalk the archive.
Estimates of the number of deaths vary, with low estimates atand high estimates at 2, Nobody likes the division of India and my heart is heavy. India and Pakistan stand frozen in a cold war, with nuclear missiles pointed at each other.
Gandhi himself was assassinated in January by a Hindu nationalist extremist who blamed him for being too supportive of Muslims at the time of Partition. A Cabinet Mission was dispatched to India in earlyand Attlee described its mission in ambitious terms: Much evidence points not to the crazy and inexplicable actions of mad, uneducated peasants with sticks and stones, but to well-organised and well-motivated groups of young men, who went out — particularly in Punjab — to carry out ethnic cleansing.
The League can develop the rest of the country. In earlyin the months leading up to the deliberations of the Punjab Boundary Commission, the main disputed areas appeared to be in the Bari and Bist doabs, although some areas in the Rechna doab were claimed by the Congress and Sikhs.
The Indian political leaders accepted the Plan on 2 June. Both states subsequently faced huge problems accommodating and rehabilitating post-Partition refugees, whose numbers swelled when the two states went to war over the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir in The British come out of the story looking ill-prepared, naive and even callous.
If Pakistan were indeed created as a homeland for Muslims, it is hard to understand why far more were left behind in India than were incorporated into the new state of Pakistan - a state created in two halves, one in the east formerly East Bengal, now Bangladesh and the other 1, kilometres away on the western side of the subcontinent [see map].Historical Map of South & Southwest Asia (15 August ) - Partition of India: The end of World War II saw British India in a state of increasing unrest, with debt-ridden Britain unwilling to accept the political and financial costs of maintaining control.
In light of the growing conflict between Hindus and Muslims, the British granted their Indian Empire independence as two separate states.
The partition of India split British India into the countries of India and Pakistan in This partition was part of the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, called British Raj. The partition was caused in part by the two-nation theory presented by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
The Partition of India has been one of the most defining events in the history of the subcontinent. It was the largest migration in human history happened in At partition museum visitors can see archival materials, survivors art, oral stories.
A convoy of Sikhs travels to Punjab after the partition of India in August Photograph: Margaret Bourke-White/The Life Picture Collection/Getty On 3 Juneonly six weeks before British.
“Partition” – the division of British India into the two separate states of India and Pakistan on August– was the “last-minute” mechanism by which the British were able to secure agreement over how independence would take place.
What happened in in the partition of India? India was separated in August as it gained its independence, splitting into Pakistan and India. The decision to create two separate countries was sparked by the end of British rule in India.Download