In both countries, the process of modernization is adding tension to already divided societies. The corruption, ineptitude and confusion that Ethnic conflict africa essays the military era plunged Nigeria into economic problems, poverty, and ethno-religious conflicts until the s. The constitution was drafted by military dictators and handed over to the people.
Targeted benefits are more appealing because ethnic groups can solidify or heighten their social and economic status relative to other ethnic groups whereas broad programmatic policies will not improve their relative worth.
Past Nigerian dictators had been under enormous pressure from minority groups for a more fair distribution of power. South Africa is rich in gold, diamonds and other strategic minerals. This has resulted in ethnic rivalry, suspicion and hostility among leaders. East, West and North. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
The architects of the new South African constitution crafted an impressive document aimed to heal the wounds of the past and establish a society based on social justicefundamental human rights and rule of law.
Hence, it is difficult to completely discount the role of inherent ethnic differences. It affected employment, education, political participation and the provision of social services to the population. From their point of view, ethnicity is a biological and fixed characteristic of individuals and communities.
Additionally, ethnic entrepreneurs, or elites, could be tempted to mobilize ethnic groups in order to gain their political support in democratizing states. These three major ethnic groups are differentiated not only by region, but also by religion and life-style.
Additionally, ethnicity, centralized government, and a corrupt ruling elite overshadow life in Nigeria. The ethnic and racial animosity that exists is very real and apparent to anyone who has spent time in the region.
Politicised ethnicity has been detrimental to national unity and socio-economic well-being. This is because many more links are needed to connect everyone, and therefore it is much more difficult to form and strengthen inter-ethnic ties.
The black South Africans were deprived of their rights to own land through the enactment of the Black Land Act. Public goods provision[ edit ] A major source of ethnic conflict in multi-ethnic democracies is over the access to state patronage. Some of these states have recently become conduits for the personal enrichment of the elites at the expense of alleviating poverty and creating job opportunities for the rest of the population.
This era of provincial development, though relatively peaceful, also led to growing ethnocentrism. As Varshney notes, "pure essentialists and pure instrumentalists do not exist anymore". In both countries, ethnic conflicts arose as a result of the denial of the basic human needs of access, identityautonomysecurity and equality, compounded by the autocratic roles played by the government and the military.
In this analysis, two inter-disciplinary methods have been chosen to understand the dynamics of ethnic conflicts in Nigeria and South Africa: They simply claim that ethnic difference is not sufficient to explain conflicts.
If history is any indication, the violence will slowly but surely spill over into Chad as rebel groups conduct cross-border raids.
Second, South Africa has been a more successful "melting pot" than Nigeria because ethnic conflict is more likely to be managed in a country with reasonable economic growth. It was this European view of tribalism that thought of it as such, however closer examination reveals it to be a politically dynamic and deliberately constructed phenomenon.
Instrumentalist scholars have tried to respond to these shortcomings. Scholars have been trying to develop a theoretical approach to ethnicity and ethnic conflict for a long time.
In South Africa, the creation of the republic followed the peace agreement reached with the Boers after the gruesome Anglo-Boer War.
Scholars of ethnic conflict and civil wars have introduced theories that draw insights from all three traditional schools of thought. Holman, But in Nigeria, the politicians are still putting out the growing flames of ethnic conflicts and religious violence.Ethnic Conflict Research Paper.
Today, most ethnic conflicts occur in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Many of these conflicts are protracted conflicts, meaning that they have lasted 10 years or more. The Sudanese civil war between the Arab-Muslim north and the Christian-Animist-African south, for example, is the longest and deadliest civil war.
Post-Colonial African Conflict. After World War II, the people of Africa fought to end the effects of European imperialism to achieve political independence and.
Ethnic Conflict Management in Africa: A Comparative Case Study of Nigeria and South Africa However, this paper does not claim to have the solution to the threat posed by ethnic conflict in Africa; it is a humble contribution to the discourse. The significance of ethnic conflict management in Africa is underlined by the continent's.
Whether clientelism, tribalism and ethnic conflict were a product not of tradition but of modernity in Africa and a type of development is a difficult and complex question in many respects, but one to which I have a strong argument. The causes of ethnic conflict cannot be generalised to fit all incidents, as the conflicts in Sri Lanka and Northern Ireland demonstrate.
David Lake and Donald Rothchild’s argument that a group’s ‘collective fear of the future’ (41) is often the main cause of ethnic conflict remains the most.
Mali, Sudan, and Ethnic Conflict in Northern Africa (also available in French here). Africa, for all its beauty and rich history, has always been a complex and often harsh continent.Download