Built nearly 2, years ago as a temple dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, it was Elgin marbles debate a thousand years the church of the Virgin Mary of the Athenians, then a Elgin marbles debate, and finally an archaeological ruin.
By then about half of the original sculptures had been destroyed. American actor George Clooney voiced his support for the return by the United Kingdom and reunification of the Parthenon Marbles in Greece, during his promotional campaign for his film The Monuments Men which retells the story of Allied efforts to save important masterpieces of art and other culturally important items before their destruction by Hitler and the Nazis during World War II.
Legality of the removal from Athens[ edit ] The Acropolis was at that time an Ottoman military fort, so Elgin required special permission to enter the site, the Parthenon, and the surrounding buildings. A new Acropolis Museum was constructed in a mere thousand feet away Elgin marbles debate the Parthenon.
That was certainly the interpretation privately placed on the firman by several of the Elgin party, including Lady Elgin. By Athens had been part of the Ottoman Empire for about years.
So it is unlikely that the Sultan ever thought that Elgin would actually remove entire frescos and sculptures. Apparently Elgin obtained written permission to excavate and remove the sculptures from the Sultan, however the original document was lost.
The Ottoman sultan was grateful to the British for repelling Napoleonic expansion, and the Parthenon marbles had no sentimental value to him. There certainly have been bad, as well as good, arguments on all sides. This temple was built to honor the patron deity of Athens, Athena.
I found the body of the marble beneath the surface white. Voting results Elgin marbles debate: The same artist supervised the creation of the extremely beautiful marble sculptures that decorated the Parthenon, some of which were many centuries later removed and sold to the British Museum.
Parthenon Frieze and Metopes of the Parthenon The Parthenon Marbles acquired by Elgin include some 21 figures from the statuary from the east and west pediments15 of an original 92 metope panels depicting battles between the Lapiths and the Centaursas well as 75 meters of the Parthenon Frieze which decorated the horizontal course set above the interior architrave of the temple.
Nevertheless, in travel guides and most newspapers, they remain the Elgin Marbles. It is my opinion that the Elgin Marbles are legally and ethically the property of Greece. Here they were shown for the first time together with masterpieces borrowed from other museums.
Is it better or worse to have them scattered through the world? The collection held in the British Museum includes the following material from the Acropolis: Although we think of it primarily as a pagan temple, its history as church and mosque was an even longer one, and no less distinguished.
Archaeologists worldwide are agreed that the surviving sculptures could never be re-attached to the structure.
In the performing arts that problem is relatively easy to solve. There is a Da Vinci Last Supper. Without progressing from the past, there can be no advancing to the future. Create your account for free.
The use of fine, gritty powder, with the water and rubbing, though it more quickly removed the upper dirt, left much embedded in the cellular surface of the marble.
As such, they represent more than half of what now remains of the surviving sculptural decoration of the Parthenon. She campaigned hard but in vain to have the marbles transferred to Athens.
Vassilis Demetriades, Professor of Turkish Studies at the University of Crete, has argued that "any expert in Ottoman diplomatic language can easily ascertain that the original of the document which has survived was not a firman".
In a Parliamentary Select Committee looked into the whole affair examining everything from the quality of the sculpture as works of art to the legality of their acquisition and recommended purchase, though for much less money than Elgin had hoped.
Since the early s, Greek governments have argued for the permanent removal to Athens of all the Parthenon sculptures in the British Museum. In the fifth century of the Christian era the Parthenon was converted into a church and for a thousand years it was the Church of the Virgin Mary of the Athenians.
In Greece, the marbles never cease to make news. Between and Lord Elgin, the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, acting with the full knowledge and permission of the Ottoman authorities, removed about half Elgin marbles debate the remaining sculptures from the fallen ruins and from the building itself.
There is the tiny temple of Victory, which stands by the propylaia, or main gateway, to the hilltop, and also the so-called Erechtheum, another shrine of Athena, with its famous line-up of caryatids columns in the form of female figures.
So they had no say in the transfer of ownership. Cardozo School of Law concluded that the premise that Elgin obtained legal title to the marbles, which he then transferred to the British government, "is certainly not established and may well be false".
But the real reason that the dispute has lasted so long is that it raises important and difficult issues, and it is not easy to see what a fair resolution is. Though environmental conditions in Athens mean that the original sculptures can never go back on the building itself.
The museum movement depended on collection, on moving objects from their original location, and on allowing them to be understood in relation to different traditions of art and cultural forms. Lord Elgin was passionate about ancient Greek art and transported the sculptures to Britain.The Elgin Marbles, sometimes referred to as the Parthenon sculptures, are a collection of marble sculptures that originally adorned the top of the exterior of the Parthenon in Athens, Greece, and.
For over years the marbles of Greece have been placed in the British museum, they are recognized as the Elgin Marbles. The Elgin Marbles continue to be the main point of an ongoing debate that will basically determine the historical influence of. Lord Elgin, a staunch patriot, had turned down lucrative offers from other governments for the treasures, and argued all along that the marbles would add luster to.
Feb 17, · These actions were controversial from the very beginning. Even before all the sculptures - soon known as the Elgin Marbles - went on display in London, Lord Byron attacked Elgin in stinging verses.
Even celebrities have been involved in the elgin marbles debate. Amal Clooney, wife of hollywood actor George Clooney and human rights lawyer, has recommended the Greek government to sue the UK for the controversial appropriation of the Elgin Marbles.
Marbles of Parthenon is a collection of classical Greek culture (it is a huge mistake to refer as Elgin Marbles! Ιt sounds as blasphemy).
Thank you for your understanding.Download